Types of The Oxygen Therapy Equipment, Plus and Minus Points
Providing oxygen to the patient
Oxygen can be given to patients with flow starting from the lowest level to the highest level. Patients given oxygen therapy are advised to use a fingertip pulse oximeter mounted on the tip of the finger or on the earlobe to determine the level of oxygen in their blood.
The following types of oxygen therapy equipment:
Nasal cannulas have oxygen flow rates of 2-6 liters/minute with oxygen concentration levels: 24-44%.
The advantage: the air that has been used cannot be used for breathing,
The disadvantage: Nasal cannula can only be used for patients who can breathe spontaneously, while the oxygen they breathe varies at different levels.
Simple Oxygen Mask
Simple Oxygen masks have oxygen flow rates between 5 to 10 liters/minute with oxygen concentration levels: 40 – 60%.
The advantage: it has a higher oxygen concentration compared to a nasal cannula.
The disadvantage: They are not well tolerated in patients with severe shortness of breath conditions, only used in patients who breathe spontaneously.
Rebreathing masks have oxygen flow rates: 8-12 liters/minute with oxygen concentrations reaching 50% to 80%.
The advantage of using this Rebreathing mask: It has a higher oxygen concentration compared to nasal cannulas and simple masks.
The Disadvantages of wearing this Rebreathing mask: this is not well tolerated in patients with severe shortness of breath, and is only used in patients who breathe spontaneously.
This Non-Respiratory Mask has an oxygen flow rate: 12-15 liters/minute with oxygen concentration: 85-100%.
The advantage of using rebreathing masks: they have the highest oxygen concentration compared to other types of oxygen masks.
The disadvantage: This non-breathing mask must suit the patient, the bag may not be flat.
Non-rebreathing masks are used in patients who breathe spontaneously.
This mask has an oxygen flow rate: 2-12 liters/minute with oxygen concentration: 24-50%.
The advantage of using this venturi mask: Oxygen concentration can be adjusted according to the patient’s needs.
The Disadvantages of using this venturi mask: This can only be used in patients who breathe spontaneously.
The pocket mask has an oxygen flow rate: 10 liters/minute, with oxygen concentration: 50%. The use of this mask has the following pluses:
- Pocket mask can add oxygen to the patient,
- Pocket mask can be used in patients with artificial respiration,
- Pocket mask can be applied to children,
- Pocket mask can get good tidal volume
- But behind the plus value, the use of pocket masks is quite troublesome and tiring for patient helpers.
Bag Valve Mask (BVM)
BVM valve pockets are emergency devices used to treat the patient’s condition to stop breathing, hypoventilation, or if ventilation is inadequate so that the patient can breathe spontaneously or until there is a more definite supporting ventilation such as a ventilator.
The use of BVM is not by flowing oxygen as in the use of cannula or nasal hood, but by inserting positive pressure ventilation into the lungs, this is often referred to as the “pocketing” action. Bagging must be done properly, that is, by making sure the patient’s airway is clear there is no blockage, the head is positioned until the airway is awake, and the lid must close completely, there is no leakage. If the bagging is wrong, there is a leaky cover, for example, the lungs won’t be able to expand. Lack of BVM is low tidal volume, it is difficult to get a leak-proof seal.
Respirators use an oxygen source
This tool has an oxygen flow rate of up to 100 liters per minute, with oxygen concentrations reaching 100%. The advantage of using this tool is that high oxygen flow creates positive pressure and increases lung development.
The disadvantage of this tool is that it can cause gastric distension, cannot be used in children without an adapter and requires an oxygen source